I'm updating this no3...
Continuation of 'Some notes I gathered from reading some articles over the summer22' series :D.
- Lamer, S. A., Sweeny, T. D., Dyer, M. L., & Weisbuch, M. (2018). Rapid visual perception of interracial crowds: Racial category learning from emotional segregation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, article (A)
- When exposed to two racial groups displaying different emotional states (think: one racial group happy and the other unhappy), participants' racial category boundary 1) becomes more conservative, and 2) their beliefs in race essentialism increase.
- Brady, T. F., & Alvarez, G. A. (2011). Hierarchical Encoding in Visual Working Memory: Ensemble Statistics Bias Memory for Individual Items. Psychological Science, 22(3). A
- Interesting findings. Authors showed people are perceived as more attractive when in a group compared to when in isolation.
- Authors' logic, I think: individual faces appear more like an average of the group, and this makes all individuals appear more average and -> average is attractive -> then : seeing people in a group makes them look attractive. They showed this in 5 experiments.
- But they didn't show this: an increase in group size did not increase the 'cheerleader effect', probably later studies addressed this.
- and when faces are blurred, group amplification was not observed.
- Phillips, L. T., Slepian, M. L., & Hughes, B. L. (2018). Perceiving groups: The people perception of diversity and hierarchy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
- They look at whether people, as well as the individual characteristics, encode emergent group properties, such as hierarchy and diversity.
- Observers encode variance in racial and gender diversity, and hierarchy (social dominance)
- Charbonnneau, I., Robinson, K., Blais, C., & Fiset, D. (2020). Implicit race attitudes modulate visual information extraction for trustworthiness judgments. PLOS ONE, A
- Authors measured how trustworthiness ratings are influenced by the spatial frequency (SF) level available info on faces (using the bubble method). They tested if implicit race bias plays a role here.
- Certain regions in the face and certain spatial frequency levels differ between white and black faces when deciding on the trustworthiness of the face.
- Overall observers that show implict biases look at SF of the white faces more than black faces, and we see left-right eye difference for white and black faces (the left eye is looked at for white faces).
- Authors discussed how dehumanization can be linked to baby-faced-ness.
- Goldenberg, A., Sweeny, T. D., Shpigel, E., & Gross, J. J. (2020). Is this my group or not? The role of ensemble coding of emotional expressions in group categorization. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, A
- Ensemble encoding ve group categorization concepts are studied here.
- People self-categorize themselves (think: wanting to be a part of that group) more to the low-variance (coherent) group. To an extent that even if their overall emotions do not match with the said group, they still want to categorize themselves with the low-variance group.
- People identify the emotion of groups more accurately if the faces have low variance.
- Mihalache, D., Lamer, S. A., Allen, J., Maher, M., & Sweeny, T. D. (2021). Anger bias in the evaluation of crowds. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, A
- Seeing more faces led to increased perceptual sensitivity (in facial expression discrimination), when emotion is vaguer (more external noise), seeing more further helps.
- Showed a systematic bias toward categorizing a crowd's emotion: seeing more anger than there is.
- 4 is the magic number, more than 4 does not increase or decrease the bias (peaking at 4).
- Using Drift diffusion modeling they showed that observers had a strong resting bias (starting value was not smaller than a 0.5 - a cutoff value?).